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Chess games are usually categorised into groups according to White's first move or two:
eg. King's Pawn start:
Four Knights' Game
King's Gambit
Vienna Game
Queen's Pawn start:
Queen's Gambit
Catalan Opening
Queen's Pawn Game
Other pawn/piece start:
English Opening
Reti's Opening
Bird's Opening
Games are also categorised descriptively by Black's early reply, eg:
  • An open vs. closed defence (and also semi-open or semi-closed), depending on Black's reply to White's KP or QP start).
  • A king's-side vs. queen's-side defence (favouring one side of the board), largely depending on Black's first choice of knight for development.
  • Regular vs. Irregular defence, i.e. whether Black's chosen reply is frequently played by masters, or rarely (if ever) played.
Finally, a specific opening is usually named according to how it develops along recognised lines as an Opening, a Defence, an Attack, a Variation, a Gambit or a Counter-Gambit.

Basics Terms.4 - Open Games & Close Openings Terms.6 - Early Mates